Comparison of trunk alignment and postural habits of high school adolescents and university students


  • Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymańska University of Applied Sciences in Tarnow, Faculty of Health Sciences, Poland
  • Katarzyna Wódka University of Applied Sciences in Tarnow, Faculty of Health Sciences, Poland
  • Justyna Kawa University od Applied Sciences in Tarnow, Faculty of Health Sciences, Poland (student of Physiotherapy)
  • Bernadetta Kwiek University of Applied Sciences in Tarnow, Faculty of Health Sciences, Poland (student of Physiotherapy)



faulty body posture, postural habits, adolescents


Introduction: It is widely believed that the postural quality of adolescents is poor and this condition is blamed, at least in part, on a sedentary lifestyle and low self-awareness of body alignment and awareness of movement quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the postural habits and trunk alignment of high school adolescents against university students with high physical activity and high awareness of the importance of postural quality for health.
Material and methods: 59 high school students and 82 university students, male and female, participated in the study. Three-dimensional trunk positioning in habitual standing was investigated using the Zebris Pointer ultrasound device. Awareness of habitual posture during various activities of daily living was assessed using a validated questionnaire. Results were analysed using Statistica v13.
Results: High school students were characterised by a greater depth of thoracic kyphosis than university students. Female high school students tended to have shallower lumbar lordosis and male high school students tended to have deeper lordosis. High school students showed worse lateral trunk inclination and greater pelvic to shoulder rotation. The most important observation regarding postural awareness was related to sitting position. Women from both groups were more likely than men to admit to sitting with a bent and rotated trunk and crossed legs.
Conclusions: It appears that higher physical activity and / or greater knowledge of university students contributes to more correct trunk positioning compared to the physically inactive high school students. Postural habits, however, are similar in both groups. Gender significantly differentiates both posture and posture-related habits.


Download data is not yet available.

Kim D, Cho M, Park Y, Yang Y. Effect of an exercise program for posture correction on musculoskeletal pain. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27(6):1791-1794. doi: 10.1589/jpts.27.1791. DOI:   Google Scholar

Nowotny J, Nowotny-Czupryna O, Brzęk A, Kowalczyk A, Czupryna K. Body posture and syndromes of back pain. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2011;13(1):59-71. doi: 10.5604/15093492.933788. DOI:   Google Scholar

Abdollahzade F, Mohammadi F, Dianat I, Asghari E, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Sokhanvar Z. Working posture and its predictors in operating room nurses. Heal Promot Perspect. 2016;6(1):17-22. doi: 10.15171/hpp.2016.03. DOI:   Google Scholar

Peper E, Booiman A, Lin I-M, Harvey R. Increase strength and mood with posture. Biofeedback. 2016;44(2):66-72. doi: 10.5298/1081-5937- DOI:   Google Scholar

Wilson VE, Peper E. The Effects of upright and slumped postures on the recall of positive and negative thoughts. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2004;29(3):189-195. doi: 10.1023/B:APBI.0000039057.32963.34. DOI:   Google Scholar

Tsai H-Y, Peper E, Lin I-M. EEG patterns under positive /negative body postures and emotion recall tasks. NeuroRegulation. 2016;3(1):23-27. doi: 10.15540/nr.3.1.23. DOI:   Google Scholar

Briñol P, Petty RE, Wagner B. Body posture effects on self-evaluation: A self-validation approach. Eur J Soc Psychol. 2009;39(6):1053-1064. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.607. DOI:   Google Scholar

Kousar, R., Mir, S. S., Sarfaraz, S., Fatima, K., Islam, F, Raza A. Knowledge, attitude and practice survey on body posture among undergraduate physiotherapy students. Pak-Euro J Med Life Sci. 2022;5(2):337-342. doi: 10.31580/pjmls.v5i2.2510. DOI:   Google Scholar

Bergentoft H. Running: A way to increase body awareness in secondary school physical education. Eur Phys Educ Rev. 2020;26(1):3-21. doi: 10.1177/1356336X18814035. DOI:   Google Scholar

Lee PH, Macfarlane DJ, Lam T, Stewart SM. Validity of the international physical activity questionnaire short form (IPAQ-SF): A systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8(1):115. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-115. DOI:   Google Scholar

Walicka-Cuprys K, Kuzdzał A. Objectified criteria for the assessment of body posture using an ultrasonic system Zebris. Man Med. 2013;17(1):19-23.   Google Scholar

Takács M, Rudner E, Nagy I, Jurák M, Kiss RM, Kocsis L. The new processing of the results of examinations made with zebris win-spine spine-measuring method and its validation. Biomech Hungarica. 2013;6(1):29-37. DOI:   Google Scholar

Zebris Medical G, WinSpine 2.3. Operating instructions. Examination of the posture, spine shape and its mobility using a double-sensor indicator. Published online 2009.   Google Scholar

Schwertner DS, Oliveira RAN da S, Beltrame TS, Capistrano R, Alexandre JM. Questionnaire on body awareness of postural habits in young people: Construction and validation. Fisioter em Mov. 2018;31. doi: 10.1590/1980-5918.031.ao16. DOI:   Google Scholar

Grabowska B. Level of physical activity among students from universities in Wrocław. Med Ogólna i Nauk o Zdrowiu. 2020;26(2):180-185. doi: 10.26444/monz/122789. DOI:   Google Scholar

Boguszewski D, Ochala A, Adamczyk J, et al. Physical activity of physiotherapy students at the Medical University of Warsaw. Heal Probl Civiliz. 2021;15(1):48-53. doi: 10.5114/hpc.2020.97678. DOI:   Google Scholar

Soroka, A., Baj-Korpak, J., & Bernacka RE. Physical activity of rural youth from Radzyń district. Probl Hig Epidemiol. 2015;96(1):286-292.   Google Scholar

Piotrowska E, Zechałko-Czajkowska A, Biernat J, Mikolajczak J. Ocena wybranych cech stylu życia kształtujących stan zdrowia 16–18 letnich dziewcząt. Cz. I. Stosowanie różnych diet, aktywność fizyczna, palenie papierosów i picie alkoholu. Rocz Państwowego Zakładu Hig. 2009;60(1):51-57.   Google Scholar

Grabara M. Analysis of body posture between young football players and their untrained peers. Hum Mov. 2012;13(2). doi: 10.2478/v10038-012-0012-7. DOI:   Google Scholar

Łakoma D, Jankowicz-Szymańska A. High physical activity vs. quality of the trunk position and the efficiency of core muscles among young males. Heal Promot Phys Act. 2020;12(3):22-28. doi: 10.5604/01.3001.0014.4323. DOI:   Google Scholar

Balkó S, Balkó I, Valter L, Jelínek M. Influence of physical activities on the posture in 10–11 year old schoolchildren. J Phys Educ Sport. 2017;17(1):101-106. doi: 10.7752/jpes.2017.s1016. DOI:   Google Scholar

Cramer H, Mehling WE, Saha FJ, Dobos G, Lauche R. Postural awareness and its relation to pain: Validation of an innovative instrument measuring awareness of body posture in patients with chronic pain. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018;19(1):1-10. DOI:   Google Scholar

Topino E, Gori A, Cramer H. Mind and body: Italian validation of the Postural Awareness Scale. Front Psychol. 2020;11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00827. DOI:   Google Scholar

Shields SA, Mallory ME, Simon A. The Body Awareness Questionnaire: Reliability and Validity. J Pers Assess. 1989;53(4):802-815. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa5304_16. DOI:   Google Scholar

Yagci G, Ayhan C, Yakut Y. Effectiveness of basic body awareness therapy in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis: A randomized controlled study. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2018;31(4):693-701. doi: 10.3233/BMR-170868. DOI:   Google Scholar

Gard G. Body awareness therapy for patients with fibromyalgia and chronic pain. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27(12):725-728. doi: 10.1080/09638280400009071. DOI:   Google Scholar

Danielsson L, Papoulias I, Petersson E-L, Carlsson J, Waern M. Exercise or basic body awareness therapy as add-on treatment for major depression: A controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2014;168:98-106. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.049. DOI:   Google Scholar




How to Cite

Jankowicz-Szymańska, A., Wódka, K., Kawa, J., & Kwiek, B. (2022). Comparison of trunk alignment and postural habits of high school adolescents and university students. Health Promotion & Physical Activity, 20(3), 11–22.



Original article

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>