Review and comparison of methods for limiting leakage currents in single-phase transformerless PV inverter topologies




Common Mode (CM) voltage, grid-tied inverter, leakage current, parasitic capacity, photovoltaic (PV) systems, transformerless inverter, Differential Mode (DM) voltage


Transformerless inverters are widely used in different photovoltaic nonisolated ac module applications, mainly in grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) generation systems, due to the benefits of achieving high efficiency over a wide load range, and low cost. Various transformerless inverter topologies have been proposed to meet the safety requirement of low ground leakage currents, such as specified in the VDE-4105 standard and low-output ac-current distortion. Topology modifications of transformerless full bridge inverters are designed to balance and maintain a constant common mode output voltage, thereby eliminating or reducing leakage currents.
This article reviews and compares the different methods for limiting leakage currents in known topologies of the full-bridge transformerless inverters, such as: H4, H5, H6, HERIC, and their improvements. The main topologies and strategies used to reduce the leakage current in transformerless schemes are summarized, highlighting advantages and disadvantages and establishing points of comparison with similar topologies. To compare the properties of different medium to high power inverters, PV inverter topologies were implemented using IGBTs and tested with the same components, same simulation parameters in PSPICE to evaluate their performance in terms of energy efficiency and leakage current characteristics. The detailed power stage operating principles, extended PWM modulator, and integrated universal gate driver with galvanic isolation in the transmission path of control signal for all IGBTs of the inverter, as well isolated and floating bias power supply for gate drivers are described.


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PSPICE simulation results of the H6 inverter output voltages and currents




How to Cite

Kołodziejski, W. ., Jasielski, J., Kuta, S. W., Szerszeń, G., & Machowski, W. (2023). Review and comparison of methods for limiting leakage currents in single-phase transformerless PV inverter topologies. Science, Technology and Innovation, 16(3-4), 1–19.



Review articles